Flowers and bulbs for the Victorian Farm Garden

When early settlers travelled to New Zealand they brought plants with them from their home land and carefully nutured them on the sea journey. Some of these treasured plants continue to be loved and looked after through the generations and remain in gardens today. 

The flowers, seeds and cuttings at the Halfway House have been sourced from people and places where their provenance, ideally before 1900, can be explained.

The flowers are photographed in the Halfway House garden.

Acquilega from old farm cottage near Ongaonga

Acquilegia
Seeds harvested from George Walker’s 1875 farm cottage garden near Ongaonga, Central Hawke’s Bay. The original plants are no longer growing on the farm. The bumble bee in this blossom seems very content!

Catalogue: 1878 W.W. McCardle, Masterton.
Gifter: Claire Bibby.
Planted: 2017. Horse paddock fence line.

Acquilegia 'Grandmother's Garden'

Acquilegia 'Grandmother's Garden'

Acquilegia 'Grandmother's Garden'

Acquilegia
Perennial.  Grandmother's Garden. This is the aquilegia that came to New Zealand with our great great grandmothers and can still be seen today thriving in gardens around homes that were built over 100 years ago. This aquilegia has long stems and multi-coloured (pink blue purple white) flowers. Great cut flowers.

Catalogue: 1878 W.W. McCardle, Masterton.
Supplier: Koanga Institute, Wairoa.
Gifter: Celia Wade-Brown Mayoral Fund.
Planted: 2017. Flower bank and horse paddock fenceline.

Hollyhock

Hollyhock

Hollyhock

Alcea - Hollyhock, assorted.
Single blooms sourced from private gardens.

Catalogue: 1871-1872 Thomas Allan.
Gifter: Carolyn Lutter.
Planted: 2018. Seeds scattered all over the garden.

Loves lies bleeding flower

Amaranthus  caudatuse - Love Lies Bleeding. 
Annual growing to 3 feet. Companion for corn, pumpkins, kumara. Loves growing with French marigold, zinnia, cosmos and sunflowers.

Supplier: Koanga Institute.
Planted: 2018. Kumara bed and flower beds.

Aster. Michaelmas daisy.

Asteraceae – Aster – Michaelmas Daisy.

Gifter: Pamela Gainsford.
Planted: 2018. Flower bank. Rose Arbour.

 

Borage flower

Borage
Attracts bees into the garden. Great tasting honey. Originally from the Mediterranean region.

Gifter: Claire Bibby.
Planted: 2017. Orchard lawn, horse paddock fence line.

Pot marigold 

Calendula officinalis - Pot marigold - English marigold.
The yellow calendula is from Rose Street, Waipawa, the former home of Mary Glover Bibby (1867-1937). Edward, Mary's son, told his grand daughter Jan, that the family amusement was to refer to the flower's as "Marygold".

Gifter: Jan Gosling, Waipawa.
Planted: 2018. Flower bank.

The orange calendula is from the old gardens of Picton, where it is very popular.

Gifter: Carolyn Lutter, Churton Park.
Planted: 2018. Flower bank.

Campion Silene dioica

Campion, Silene dioica
Wildflower from the British woodlands.

Gifter: Carolyn Lutter.
Planted: 2018. Flower bank and fence line.

Carnation, Maori Chief
Lavender grey/mauve grey in colour.

"John Greenaway, Canterbury, New Zealand, introduced the first batch of 'florists' flowers including Conqueror, Favourite, Maori Chief; Conquest, Rifleman and others." The Star, The Carnation, 22 January 1895.

"In the open class, Messrs Kerr and Barnett secured the first prize for six carnations and six picotees, with a very fine stand, in which the "Maori Chief " carnation was especially worthy of notice." The Star, The Christchurch Horticultural Society, 4 January 1882.

Gifter: Patricia Apperly. 
Planted: 2018. Flower bank.

Cornflower blue

Centaurea cyanus - Cornflower -  Emperor William.
Annual. An ancient variety of cornflower from northern Europe, a sky blue star flower. Companion plant to the European grains, perfect in a cottage garden collection or border. Self seeds easily. This flower is the World War One symbol for the French, in the same way the red poppy is the remembrance flower in New Zealand.

Supplier: Koanga Institute, Wairoa.
Gifter: Celia Wade-Brown Mayoral Fund.
Planted: 2017. Flower bank and horse paddock fence line.

 Ruby gem cornflower

Centaurea cyanus - Cornflower - Ruby Gem.
Annual. Stunning, classic cornflower, dark maroon flowers. Good cut flower, flowering from spring into summer. Great at the back of a border.

Supplier: Koanga Institute, Wairoa.
Gifter: Celia Wade-Brown Mayoral Fund.
Planted: 2017. Flower bank and horse paddock fence line.

Honeywort

Cerinthe major - Honeywort.
Attracts bees and is a good filler plant, the size of a small shrub. Originally from the Mediterranean region.

Gifter: Claire Bibby
Planted: 2017. Orchard lawn, horse paddock fence line. 

Orange decorative dahlia

Light yellow dahlia

Dahlia.
A mix from old gardens. Great for attracting bees into the garden.

Supplier: Koanga Institute, Wairoa.
Gifter: Celia Wade-Brown Mayoral Fund.
Planted: 2017. Flower bank.

Maida Baddiley's dahlia

Dahlia 'Mrs Baddiley' [original name unknown] 
Maida Baddiley lived to the grand age of 106 years. Her dahlia, which is affectionately known as ‘Mrs Baddiley’s dahlia’ is an old pale pink single bloomed variety. It was originally grown in her garden at 14 Newtown Avenue, Newtown, Wellington. She took it from there to her garden in Paparangi in 1973. She gave bulbs to her next-door neighbour's, who are our Heritage Gardener’s!

Gifter Maida Alexandra Baddiley (1911-2017).
Planted: 2018. Rose Arbour.

Dahlia's of Jennifer Timmings

Dahlia's of Jennifer Timmings

Dahlia - Timmings selection [original name unknown] 
These dahlia are a selection from the garden of Jennifer Timmings of Khandallah. They were planted there on her marriage 56 years ago and some were sourced from the garden of her mother-in-law in Auckland.

Gifter: Jennifer Timmings.
Planted: 2018. Rose Arbour.

Larkspur Earl Grey

Larkspur, delphinium Earl Grey

Delphinium - Larkspur - Earl Grey.
Annual. This stunning larkspur is a classic example of how much our modern flowers have changed . It is an old fashioned heritage larkspur with tall open growth and open flower spikes, instead of the far more compact plants and flower spikes of modern selections.

Supplier: Koanga Institute, Wairoa.
Gifter: Celia Wade-Brown Mayoral Fund.
Planted: 2017. Horse paddock fence line. 2018. Rose Arbour. 2019. Flower bank.

Larkspur, delphinium blue

Larkspur, delphinium blue

Delphinium - Larkspur - Dark blue [unknown].
Annual. An old variety of larkspur rarely seen today. It came from the garden of Phoebe Cooper of Airlie Road in Plimmerton. Phoebe was a school teacher and gave seed to her school teacher colleague, Ruth Bloxham, who passed the seeds onto her neice, one of our heritage gardeners. The blue from the crushed petals is so rich it can be used as ink, or dye.

Gifter: Ruth Bloxham
Planted: 2017. Flower bank.

Dianthus 'Dad's Favourite'

Dianthus - Dad’s Favourite.
Semi-double flowers with white edges, wine red fringes and a purple centre. Mat forming. Very fragrant. This flower may be an original Scotch Pink, or Laced Pink of Paisley, cultivated by the weavers of Paisley, Scotland. Perennial.

Roy Genders in his book Garden Pinks (1962) writes:
“It was the black and white or Laced Pink, Lady Stoverdale, raised by James Major in 1772 that brought about so much interest in the flower at Paisley where it was realised that it was possible to raise others of the most intricate designs. By 1840 as many as a hundred different varieties of the Laced Pink were known to specialist growers around Paisley, and clubs to foster the cultivation and exhibition of the Laced Pink sprang into being everywhere…(p 15).

“The object of the Paisley weavers was to impart the characteristics of rounded or smooth edges to the flowers, thereby eliminating the serrated petal edges of dianthus plumarius. At the outer edge of the petals was to be a band of black, with which colouring the blooms were also marked at the centre. The variety was recognised by the degree of black about the bloom.”(p 16).

“To those south of the Border, the pinks of Paisley became known as Scotch Pinks… By the middle of the nineteenth century it is probable that the Laced Pinks had ceased to exist in Paisley, in spite of their hardiness, exterminated as it would appear by adverse conditions which were now being experienced through the industrialisation of that area.” (p 15).

“Perhaps the old Scotch Pinks still survive in the recently discovered and re-named Dad’s Favourite. This variety was found in a cottage garden in Berwickshire by Mr. A. J. Macself. He re-named it Dad’s Favourite as the old cottager had mentioned that it had been his father’s favourite flower." (p 16-17).

Note: Albert James Macself (1878-1952) wrote gardening books and edited the British magazine Amateur Gardening.

Supplier: Mauways Nursery, Hunterville.
Gifter: Claire Bibby.
Planted: 2018. Flower bank.

Dianthus Mrs Sinkins

Dianthus - Mrs Sinkins.
Heavily scented. White ruffled double flowers. Perennial.

It was raised by Thomas Sinkins, Master of Slough Workhouse and named after his wife Catherine Sinkins. The flower is incorporated in the coat of arms of the Borough of Slough, England. The flower was first produced commercially by Charles Turner's Royal Nursery in 1868 (Refer Slough History Online).

Supplier: Mauways Nursery, Hunterville.
Gifter: Claire Bibby.
Planted: 2018. Flower bank.

Dicentra spectabilis aka Bleeding Heart

Dicentra spectabilis - Bleeding Heart. (x3).
Perennial with tiny pink and white heart shaped blooms that appear on long arching stems in late spring and summer.

Catalogue: 1872-1873 William Martin, Fairfield Nursery, Saddlehill Road, Green Island, Dunedin.
Supplier: Twigland Gardener’s World, Glenside.
Gifter: Celia Wade-Brown Mayoral Fund.
Planted: 2018. White scented garden.

NZ Snowdrop - in England called the Lodden Lily or snowflake

Leucojum - Snowdrop. 
In New Zealand we call this bulb the snowdrop. In Great Britain it’s known as the Lodden Lily or Summer Snowflake. You will find this bulb growing at most pre 1900 farm gardens in New Zealand and in paddocks where original houses no longer exist. Ours came from Nott House, aka Ivy Bank Farm.

Gifter: Donna Sherlock.
Planted 2017. Horse paddock fence line. White scented garden.

Hyssop sweet marigold

Marigold Hyssop.
Perennial. Border edge vege companion with starry bright yellow flowers flowering all summer into late autumn.

Supplier: Koanga Institute, Wairoa.
Gifter: Celia Wade-Brown Mayoral Fund.
Planted: 2016. Horse paddock fence line.

 Forget me not white

Myosotis.  Forget-me-not, white
Myosotis. We replanted this from the stream bank at The Halfway House, into the woodland garden. We are not sure if it’s a remnant from the garden, or if the seed blew over from the garden centre next door. More research is needed to find out if the white field forget me is a Victorian arrival in New Zealand or came to the country after 1900.

Planted: 2017. Stumpery.

Pelargonium

Pelagonium [Unidentified]
John Tradescant brought the pelagonium to England from South Africa in 1631. Ours came from the historic garden of Golder Cottage, established in 1876. We don’t know its name.

Gifted cutting: Golder Cottage, Upper Hutt.
Planted: 2016. Horse paddock fence line.

N. x medioluteus, Twin sisters

Narcissis. 1597.
N. x medioluteus, Twin sisters.
“Generally knowne everywhere,” wrote the great herbalist John Gerard in 1597 about this fragrant wildflower he called Primrose Peerless. The bulbs were found growing along the banks of the Halfway House and were relocated to the garden. They also grow on the possible 1841 site of an earlier Halfway House occupied by the Wall family. The bulb has two blooms per stem, hence the name Twin Sisters, or Loving Couple. This is an original flower from the old days of The Halfway.

Planted: 2017, 2018. Horse paddock fenceline. Sloping lawn.

In 2018, a collection of these bulbs were donated by Peter and Pauline Russell from their garden. They had harvested the bulbs from the possible Halfway House site opposite their home. In 2019, when this section vacant section was bulldozed, more bulbs were rescued from the site. 

Planted: 2018. White scented garden.

Pelagonium apple blossom

Pelagonium apple blossom

Pelargonium - Appleblossom Rosebud.
Said to be a favourite pelargonium of Queen Victoria. Introduced in 1870. Ours grew from a cutting that was taken from a plant in the garden of Kate Bibby's cottage at Glen Appin, Ongaonga.

Gifter: Ted & Alison Bibby.
Planted: 2018. Flower bank.

Solomon's Seal

Solomon's Seal 

Polygonatum multiflorum - Solomon’s Seal (x3).
Good for ground cover in a shady place. Has arching fernlike fronds hung with white flowers, followed by inedible berries. Dies down completely in winter. Perennial.

Parts of the plant have been used in healing and medicinal purposes for centuries across Europe and North America and the Far East. Named for King Solomon’s Seal in the Bible, which had power for one thing: to provide protection from malevolent forces. (Refer Cortesia Herbal Products – Solomons Seal).

Supplier: Twigland Gardener’s World, Glenside.
Gifter: Celia Wade-Brown Mayoral Fund.
Planted: 2018. White scented garden.

Saxifraga umbrosa - London Pride (x 23).
An evergreen rosette with spoon-shaped, waxy-edged leaves and tall airy spikes of starry white flowers with a pink flush, white in summer. Mat forming. 

Catalogue: 1872-1873 William Martin, Fairfield Nursery, Saddlehill Road, Green Island, Dunedin.
Supplier: Wake Robin Nursery, Balclutha.
Gifter: Celia Wade-Brown Mayoral Fund.
Planted: 2018. Flower bank.

 Snapdragon Bolivian Antique

Snapdragons along the path

Snapdragon flower

Snapdragon, Bolivian Antique.
Biennial. A mix of yellow, cerise, red etc. All mixed up and striped.

Catalogue: 1878 W.W. McCardle, Masterton
Supplier: Koanga Institute, Wairoa.
Gifter: Celia Wade-Brown Mayoral Fund.
Planted: 2017. Horse paddock fenceline, flower bank. 2018. Rose arbour.

 Snapdragon NZ Heritage Yellow

Snapdragon, Yellow.
Biennial. New Zealand heritage. A classic traditional yellow coloured snap dragon.

Catalogue: 1878 W.W. McCardle, Masterton.
Supplier: Koanga Institute, Wairoa.
Gifter: Celia Wade-Brown Mayoral Fund.
Planted: 2017. Horse paddock fence line.

Sunflowers maximillian

Sunflower Maximillian.
Biennial. Original form of sunflower. Starry yellow flowers in autumn.

Catalogue: 1878 W.W. McCardle, Masterton.
Supplier: Koanga Institute, Wairoa.
Gifter: Celia Wade-Brown Mayoral Fund.
Planted: 2017. Horse paddock fence line.

Violet

Violet [unidentified, therefore named Thelma Phillips]
The violet, a favourite Victorian flower. We wanted to know the name of this flower and consulted Clive Groves of the famous Groves Nurseries of England, founded in 1866. The nursery holds the national collection of Viola ordorata and Parma violets, which we discovered by way of  'The Story of the Clevedon Violet' on the internet, and 'The Victorian Flower Garden' by Jennifer Davies.

Clive Groves responded "I cannot match it up with any I know, I have been through photos I have taken over the last 10 years." He consulted a friend and concluded "I am sorry to say, we have drawn blank, there are many, many cultivars, but this one is very distinct in shape, so I think between us we would have named it if it was an existing variety, which means, it is either a very old one that we have lost track of or, which is probably more likely, a new seedling which has evolved from cross pollination, in which case, it might be a good idea to put a name to it, to make sure it continues, it is definately worth looking after...look after it, it’s a good one."

We then went back to our gifter, Hazel, and she told us her story of the violet, which was from her mother Thelma's garden.

Thelma Phillips (married name Thelma Mrytle)  was born on 23 May 1901 and passed away in 1986. She lived all her married life in Rama Road, Kaupokonui, Manaia. At that time Kaupokonui had only a General Store, Farmer's Supply Store and a Dairy Factory (now closed). Thelma was a keen gardener and grew all the vegetables for the family of 12 children. Hazel went to Auroa school.

Hazel biked to the main road to catch the bus to Hawera High School - leaving her bike carefully concealed behind a roadside gate. She left home at age 18 years. She recalls her mother picking violets for the house and the scent of violets in her bedroom. Thelma gave Hazel a piece of the violet from Rama Road to plant in Hazel's own garden on The Terrace in Wellington when she shifted there 50 years ago. The violet was treasured all those years and gifted to the Heritage Gardeners in 2017.

 Wallflower

Lilac wallflower

Wallflower, Henrys Dwarf.
Biennial. New Zealand Heritage. Low growing, mixed colour, scented wallflower, from plain white to mauve to mixed with yellows. They flower all winter and early spring.

Catalogue: 1878 W.W. McCardle, Masterton. Specifically, listed, colours of sulpher yellow and orange.
Supplier: Koanga Institute, Wairoa.
Gifter: Celia Wade-Brown Mayoral Fund.
Planted: 2017. Flower bank and horse paddock fenceline.

zinnia

Zinnia

Zinnia.
Annual. Summer and autumn colour. Brightest and long lasting with great cut flowers that also attract the butterflies.

Catalogue: 1878 W.W. McCardle, Masterton.
Supplier: Koanga Institute, Wairoa.
Gifter: Celia Wade-Brown Mayoral Fund.
Planted: 2017. Flower bank. Horse paddock fence line.